What is the basis for the NAP process and how does it relate to ongoing adaptation planning efforts?
The NAP process was created by the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) in 2010 to enable LDCs (and other developing countries) to formulate and implement national adaptation plans (NAPs) as a means of identifying medium- and long-term adaptation needs and developing and implementing strategies and programmes to address those needs. As with other national plans, the NAPs would be national documents, fully endorsed and approved by an appropriate national body. The NAP process builds on existing and ongoing activities in countries, including the NAPAs in the case of LDCs, and is expected to serve as a platform for coordinating adaptation efforts at the national level involving all relevant actors, serving the interests of all adaptation stakeholders.
How flexible is the NAP process to take into account national planning approaches for a given country?
As a country-driven process, and one that is based on national circumstances, the NAP process should be tailored to national planning approaches for a given country. This includes fitting within procedures for coordination, design of institutional arrangements, and procedures for endorsement and clearance of national plans.
How can countries and organizations share their experiences, best practices, and lessons learned in adaptation planning and implementation through other processes, in order to inform the formulation and implementation of NAPs?
Most countries have ongoing activities on adaptation – the NAP process allows for these efforts to be folded into the national NAP process, through a country-driven NAP framework/strategy or roadmap. The COP in its decision 12/CP.18 requested Parties and relevant organizations to share best practices and lessons learned in addressing adaptation, through the ongoing work of the LEG, the Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change, and other bodies and ongoing work under the Convention. The LEG maintains three primary channels for sharing such information: (i) A best practices and lessons learned platform available on the LDC Portal. The LEG is currently revising its methodologies for capturing and sharing best practices and lessons learned in addressing adaptation; (ii) the NAP Expo, an annual event hosted by the LEG as part of technical guidance and support to the LDCs and (iii) NAP Central, the central information and knowledge sharing platform for NAPs
The descriptions of the NAPs and NAP process appear to use very specific terminology, how is this important? Examples include process, integration, flexible, country-driven, etc.
The terminology used in the NAP guidelines and other outreach products on NAPs stem from the COP decisions in which the objectives, principles, and modalities of the NAPs are defined (1/CP.16 and 5/CP.17). They have been agreed upon by all Parties to the Convention including their particular meaning. To avoid confusion, it is important to stay true to the use of terms as defined and understood by the Parties.
How are the NAP technical guidelines different from guidelines or guidance material from other organizations?
The NAP technical guidelines have been developed on the basis of the COP initial guidelines for the formulation of NAPs contained in the annex to decision 5/CP.17. Together with the initial guidelines, they provide a basis for the formulation and implementation of NAPs. Numerous guidelines and guidance materials exist for components of the adaptation planning cycle, and these can be used as supplementary materials for specific steps of the NAP process.
How are NAPs different from NAPAs?
The NAPAs were designed to enable LDCs to communicate their urgent and immediate adaptation needs in the form of project ideas and project profiles. NAPAs help LDCs address those urgent and immediate adaptation needs for which a delay could increase vulnerability or lead to increased costs at a later stage. NAPs, on the other hand, are designed to address medium- and long-term adaptation needs, taking a more comprehensive and programmatic approach, where the adaptation plans are produced and iteratively updated over time. All developing country Parties can produce NAPs.
How can a country best build on the NAPAs and other adaptation efforts in undertaking a NAP process?
The NAP process, under element A “Lay the groundwork and address gaps” provides for the opportunity to undertake a stocktaking exercise through which countries may identify ongoing and past adaptation activities and their effectiveness, including that of policies, programmes, projects, and capacity-building efforts. A useful result of the stocktaking would be a database that would capture information on results (outputs and outcomes) and the effectiveness of such efforts that could then be built upon by the NAP process. Relevant ongoing adaptation efforts should be integrated into the NAP process, to avoid any duplication of effort, and to ensure a harmonized approach to adaptation. Lessons learned and best practices for a given situation and country would also be invaluable in carrying out activities under the NAP process. In more practical terms, relevant existing institutions and assessments would be directly used in the NAP process.
Does a NAP replace the NAPAs? What will happen to NAPA priorities that have not been implemented yet?
The NAP will not replace but naturally build on institutions that have been put in place and activities that have been undertaken under the NAPA. NAPA priorities will continue to be funded until they have been implemented. However, gradually, the NAP process will be the main and long-term vehicle through which countries plan and implement adaptation and communicate support needs.
How and when does a country start a NAP process?
A country can communicate broadly, including to stakeholders at the national level and the UNFCCC, about the initiation of its NAP process and provide contact details for partners that are interested in supporting the process. It is expected that after initial awareness-raising about adaptation and the NAPs, relevant climate change adaptation actors in the country would agree on an approach to embark on NAPs. It is expected that the process for formulating such plans and subsequently implementing them, would evolve over various planning activities and that such a process would be country-driven, transparent, and inclusive. A country can start the NAP process at any time and hopefully as soon as possible given the importance to address adaptation.
Who should take the lead in initiating and launching work on NAPs for a country? What is the role of LEG, the GSP, and other agencies that are willing to provide support to countries?
As the NAP process is a country-driven and country-owned process, it is important that it is initiated and led by the national government. In most cases, the UNFCCC climate change focal point will be in a good position to undertake a targeted awareness-raising campaign, such as briefings, among policymakers. This will help to increase the understanding of climate change impacts and the benefits of the NAP process and subsequently receive political support. For the awareness-raising campaign, the focal point might request support from various organizations. The LEG, which is mandated by the COP to provide overall technical guidance and support to the NAP process, can support the initial stages such as by providing general awareness-raising material. The Global Support Programme for NAPs has been set up to advance the NAP process in LDCs, particularly regarding institutional support, technical support, and knowledge brokering. All organizations and agencies that are willing to provide support should follow the country-driven process and provide technical, financial, and capacity-building support in accordance with national priorities.
What institutional arrangements are best for coordinating the NAP process? How can countries ensure a wide range of ministries and other stakeholders are involved?
The institutional arrangements that a country will use or set up to drive the NAP process will depend on its political system and individual circumstances. In some cases, there may be existing arrangements already in place to drive work on adaptation. As many activities under the NAP process will involve the integration of adaptation into sectoral policies and processes, it is important that the institutional arrangements allow for effective collaboration and coordination among different line ministries and sectoral institutions with clearly identifiable responsibilities.
Does the initiation and progress on the NAP process need to be communicated to the LEG, and/or the UNFCCC secretariat?
The COP invited countries to provide information on what measures they have undertaken and on support provided or received for the NAP process through their national communications and other channels. As such, communication on all important activities of the NAP process to the UNFCCC secretariat, including through other channels such as the LEG, would facilitate the sharing of information on the NAP process. The UNFCCC secretariat was requested to manage such information on the NAP process through existing or enhanced databases on its website. The secretariat, under the guidance of the LEG, will use NAP Central to manage such information
What is the relevance of the time frames in NAPAs and in NAPs?
NAPAs were set up to help countries address urgent and immediate adaptation needs, implying a short-term horizon in terms of when actions should be taken and in some respects, the benefits would need to be accrued in the short-term also, in order to reduce vulnerability immediately. The identification of priority activities is based on information and data readily available in the country to speed up the process. The preparation of the NAPA follows specific steps and the main output is the NAPA in the form of a document that is endorsed and submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat. In contrast, NAPs take on a medium- and long-term approach, and would need to take into account projected climatic changes and risks, using suitable climate projection methods. In addition to working to reduce vulnerability to climate change, the NAPs also work towards the integration of adaptation into national development plans.
Does the NAP process need to produce NAPs in document form?
Any planning process produces plans that naturally must be in document form. The NAPs that will be produced can take many forms, from national plans that encompass all adaptation issues for all sectors, to national plans for a given sector. In some cases, the national plans would be for specific locales and systems, such as a national plan for urban areas. The exact nature of national plans to be produced will be determined by the country.
Is there any quality control mechanism for the NAP document or NAP process at the UNFCCC/LEG level? Is there any clearance procedure?
The NAP process is a country-driven and country-owned process. Therefore any information received at the international level from the Focal Point, or from the relevant entity(ies) designated by the government, shall be considered an official communication. There will not be a clearance procedure. As with the formulation of NAPAs, the LDCs are welcome to submit their draft documents under the NAP process to the LEG for technical feedback and advice.
What are reporting channels for the NAPs, and what specific information needs to be included in the various channels?
The COP guidelines stipulate that progress on the NAP process, in terms of measures undertaken and support provided or received, can be reported through national communications to the UNFCCC, as well as through other channels. The COP initial guidelines for NAPs also call on countries to disseminate information on the NAP process to the public and to the UNFCCC secretariat. The submission of the information on the NAP process can be done through submissions to the COP agenda items on NAPs, or in the case of document outputs, these can be submitted directly to the UNFCCC secretariat. The secretariat would then collect, compile and synthesize the information provided through the various channels and make it available to the SBI to facilitate monitoring and evaluation of the progress being made in the NAP process. The secretariat was further requested to include the information on activities under the NAP process in its databases.
Who will support the formulation and the implementation of NAPs?
The GEF was requested to support the formulation of NAPs through the LDCF for LDCs and through the SCCF for non-LDC developing countries. Countries may also be supported through other multilateral, bilateral, and national resources. The implementation of NAPs would be supported through the GCF as well as other sources, including other multilateral, bilateral, and national resources.
What are available forms of support for the formulation and implementation of NAPs? How can countries mobilize resources to finance NAP activities?
Several forms of support are available to countries for NAPs. Technical and capacity-building support is available through the Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG), the Adaptation Committee (AC), and other bodies such as the Technology Executive Committee on technological matters. The NAP Global Support Programme (GSP) is another source of technical support, with the added benefit of country missions to assist with certain preparatory steps such as stocktaking. The programme has three components, namely: the brokering of knowledge, institutional support, and technical support. The GEF has been requested to provide financial support for the formulation of NAPs through the LDCF and SCCF for LDCs and non-LDCs, respectively. Both funds can be accessed by countries through the existing modalities for both funds. The GCF, once operational, will provide resources for readiness and preparatory activities and technical assistance, such as the preparation or strengthening of NAPs. For the implementation, it will support developing countries in pursuing project-based and programmatic approaches in accordance with climate change strategies and plans, such as NAPs. Both, the formulation and implementation of NAPs will receive further technical and financial support through bilateral and multilateral organizations and various international programmes. At the moment, countries have to mobilize resources to finance specific NAP activities individually. They can use any and all existing modalities for accessing support from the GEF and the other sources in mobilizing resources for the NAP process. The national strategy and road map for the NAP process could be used to communicate support needs for the formulation of NAPs and help mobilize resources. Other outputs later in the NAP process in the form of national adaptation plans would then be used to mobilize resources for implementation.
How can LDCs access the LDCF for the formulation of their NAP?
As communicated by the GEF, LDCs can access resources from the LDCF for the formulation of NAPs through existing GEF modalities of medium-sized projects, full-sized projects, and programmatic approaches, consistent with the objectives and principles of the LDCF. For this, LDCs would develop a Project Identification Form (PIF) for a project to formulate a NAP with the assistance of one of the GEF agencies. The GEF provides funding of up to USD 25,000 for the development of a PIF. Once the PIF is approved, the country may choose to apply for a Project Preparation Grant (PPG) of up to USD 200,000 for the development of a full project document. The full project document would then get endorsed by the GEF CEO, which would enable the disbursement of the requested amount of funding to the country for the formulation of the NAP. A complete description of the GEF modalities for accessing the LDCF is contained in the GEF document GEF/LDCF.SCCF.13/04 titled Updated Operational Guidelines for the Least Developed Countries Fund.
What is the role of the Green Climate Fund in supporting NAPs?
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) was established in 2010 as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention to support projects, programmes, policies, and other activities in developing country Parties, using thematic funding windows (decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 102). It will support developing countries in pursuing project-based and programmatic approaches in accordance with climate change strategies and plans, including NAPs, thus supporting particularly the implementation phase. The Fund will also provide separate resources for readiness and preparatory activities and technical assistance, such as for the preparation of NAPs. These activities include the strengthening of capacities for country coordination and to meet fiduciary principles and standards and environmental and social safeguards, in order to enable countries to directly access the Fund.